Hybrid Fortran is an Open Source directive based extension for the Fortran language. It is a way for HPC programmers to keep writing Fortran code like they are used to – only now with GPGPU support. It achieves performance portability by allowing different storage orders and loop structures for the CPU and GPU version. All computational code stays the same as in the respective CPU version, e.g. it can be kept in a low dimensionality even when the GPU version needs to be privatised in more dimensions in order to achieve a speedup. Hybrid Fortran takes care of the necessary transformations at compile-time (so there is no runtime overhead). A (python based) preprocessor parses these annotations together with the Fortran user code structure, declarations, accessors and procedure calls, and then writes separate versions of the code – once for CPU with OpenMP parallelization and once for GPU with CUDA Fortran. More details: http://typhooncomputing.com/?p=416
Sparse matrix-vector multiplication (spMVM) is the most time-consuming kernel in many numerical algorithms and has been studied extensively on all modern processor and accelerator architectures. However, the optimal sparse matrix data storage format is highly hardware-specific, which could become an obstacle when using heterogeneous systems. Also, it is as yet unclear how the wide single instruction multiple data (SIMD) units in current multi- and many-core processors should be used most efficiently if there is no structure in the sparsity pattern of the matrix. We suggest SELL-C-sigma, a variant of Sliced ELLPACK, as a SIMD-friendly data format which combines long-standing ideas from General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs) and vector computer programming. We discuss the advantages of SELL-C-sigma compared to established formats like Compressed Row Storage (CRS) and ELLPACK, and show its suitability on a variety of hardware platforms (Intel Sandy Bridge, Intel Xeon Phi and Nvidia Tesla K20) for a wide range of test matrices from different application areas. Using appropriate performance models we develop deep insight into the data transfer properties of the SELL-C-sigma spMVM kernel. SELL-C-sigma comes with two tuning parameters whose performance impact across the range of test matrices is studied and for which reasonable choices are proposed. This leads to a hardware-independent (“catch-all”) sparse matrix format, which achieves very high efficiency for all test matrices across all hardware platforms.
(M. Kreutzer, G. Hager, G. Wellein, H. Fehske, and A. R. Bishop: “A unified sparse matrix data format for modern processors with wide SIMD units.” Submitted, July 2013 [preprint])